REVIEW ARTICLE. Swine Influenza in Sub-Saharan Africa – Current Knowledge and Emerging Insights. C. Meseko1,2, D. Olaleye2, I. Capua3 and G. Cattoli3. 1 Virology Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria. 2 Virology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The drug Tamiflu, given to tens of thousands of people during the swine flu pandemic, does nothing to halt the spread of influenza and the Government wasted nearly £500 million stockpiling it, a major study has found. The study found that Tamiflu, which was given to 240,000 people in the UK at a rate of 1,000 a week, has been linked to suicides of children in Japan and suggested that, far from easing flu symptoms, it could actually worsen them. Based on the results, the Department of Health bought around 40 million doses of Tamiflu at a cost of £424 million and prescribed it to around 240,000 people. In 2009, 0.5 per cent of the entire NHS budget was spent on the drug. However, researchers from The Cochrane Collaboration, a not-for-profit organisation which carries out reviews of health data, found that Tamiflu only cut flu-like symptoms from seven days to 6.3 days and there was no evidence of a reduction in hospital admissions. Eight children who took the drug in Japan ended up committing suicide after suffering psychotic episodes. Other side effects included kidney problems, nausea, vomiting and headaches. Many people reported feeling anxious or depressed when taking the drug.
Flu viruses have mainly affected humans, birds and pigs worldwide. During the past 10 years these viruses are in limelight at a global level due to pandemic threats of Avian/Bird Flu and Swine Flu and their public health impacts, with added pandemic of swine flu virus recently. The current ongoing episodes of bird flu and. When nurse Meleney Gallagher was told to line up with her colleagues on the renal ward at Sunderland Royal Hospital, for her swine flu vaccination, she had no idea the injection she was about to have had not gone through the usual testing process. It had been rushed into circulation after the swine flu virus had swept across the globe in 2009, prompting fears thousands of people could die. We were given no information.”The date was 23 November 2009 and Gallagher was one of thousands of NHS staff vaccinated with Pandemrix, a vaccine made by pharmaceutical giant Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK). From the moment the needle broke Gallagher’s skin, her life would never be the same.“I remember vividly we were all lined up in the corridor and we were told we had to have it. Eight years later, her career in the NHS is a memory and she’s living with incurable, debilitating narcolepsy and suffers from cataplexy, a sudden, uncontrollable loss of muscle tone that can cause her to collapse without warning. Because of her condition, she can no longer work or drive. People with narcolepsy experience chronic fatigue and difficulty sleeping at night.
ABSTRACT. The study in this paper is an attempt to cover what is influenza and its types, the history of influenza, different types of influenza with special emphasis on swine flu. The article takes review from various journals, books and agencies like NIV, to cover the following aspects for the benefit of the readers ‐What is. The World Health Organization declared the first flu pandemic in 41 years on 11 June 2009.
PubMed Journal articles for Swine flu were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad. Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu. It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic synergy. Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell. Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. H1N1 strains caused a small percentage of all human flu infections in 2004–2005.
Nov 23, 2016. Swine flu is a highly contagious respiratory disease in pigs caused by one of several swine influenza A viruses see the image below. Transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans is uncommon. However, the swine influenza virus can be transmitted to humans via contact with infected pigs or. Backyard productive systems (BPS) are recognized as the most common form of animal production in the world. However, BPS frequently exhibit inherent biosecurity deficiencies, and could play a major role in the epidemiology of animal diseases and zoonoses. The aim of this study was to determine if influenza A viruses (IAV) were prevalent in backyard poultry and swine BPS in central Chile. Through active surveillance in Valparaiso and Metropolitan regions from 2012 - 2014, we found that influenza virus positivity by real-time RT-PCR (q RT-PCR) ranged from 0% during winter 2012-45.8% during fall 2014 at the farm level. We also obtained an H12 hemagglutinin (HA) sequence of wild bird origin from a domestic Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), indicating spillover from wild birds into backyard poultry populations. Furthermore, a one-year sampling effort in 113 BPS in the Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins (LGB ÓHiggins) region showed that 12.6% of poultry and 2.4% of swine were positive for IAV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indicative of previous exposure of farm animals to IAV. This study highlights the need for improved IAV surveillance in backyard populations given the close interaction between domestic animals, wild birds and people in these farms, particularly in an understudied region, like South America. Avian influenza viruses (AIV) potentially transmit to swine as shown by experiments, where further reassortment may contribute to the generation of pandemic strains.
Get vaccinated against seasonal and 2009 H1N1 flu. Vaccination is the best protection we have against flu. CDC is now encouraging everyone to get. Swine flu has been creating a terror effects all round the globe and has been declared epidemic in most part of the world. Swine flu refers to swine influenza or the viral infection caused by any of the several types of swine influenza virus. Only people who used to have direct contact with pigs were observed to get swine flu in the past. But, H1N1 virus is a new swine flu virus and it contains the genetic material of swine, bird and human influenza virus. Swine flu can produce a number of symptoms in both adults and children. In India day by day the graph of infected person has been climbed up so, it is important to take into consideration about this disease as it may prove deadly one. The intensity of this disorder can be lowered by diagnosing and taking proper treatments. Swine flu is an emerging viral infection that is a present global public health problem. There are many thousands cases of swine flu in the present day.
The search was limited to human influenza studies published between January 2009 and August 17, 2011 the date of the last keyword search of the electronic database. We focused on AH1N1pdm09 and seasonal influenza. We did not include articles that focused solely on avian influenza. Because we aimed to. There are several possible explanations for the high mortality rate of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Some research suggests that the specific variant of the virus had an unusually aggressive nature. One group of researchers recovered the virus from the bodies of frozen victims, and found that transfection in animals caused a rapid progressive respiratory failure and death through a cytokine storm (overreaction of the body's immune system). It was then postulated that the strong immune reactions of young adults ravaged the body, whereas the weaker immune systems of children and middle-aged adults resulted in fewer deaths among those groups. found that the viral infection itself was not more aggressive than any previous influenza, but that the special circumstances (malnourishment, overcrowded medical camps and hospitals, poor hygiene) promoted bacterial superinfection that killed most of the victims typically after a somewhat prolonged death bed. of St Bartholomew's Hospital and the Royal London Hospital identified the major troop staging and hospital camp in Étaples, France, as being the center of the 1918 flu pandemic. In late 1917, military pathologists reported the onset of a new disease with high mortality that they later recognized as the flu. The overcrowded camp and hospital — which treated thousands of victims of chemical attacks and other casualties of war — was an ideal site for the spreading of a respiratory virus; 100,000 soldiers were in transit every day.
The recent outbreak of human infection with a novel Swine-Origin Influenza A H1N1 virus is spreading rapidly through sustained human-to-human transmission in multiple countries. Human-to-human. Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza a review of volunteer challenge studies. Am J Epidemiol, 167. Emerging swine flu (H1N1) influenza has become the public health concern since its first appearance in 2009. The clinical issue of swine flu in immunocompromised host is very interesting. In this brief article, the author summarizes on the clinical feature of swine flu in HIV infection cases. Keywords: HIV, Swine, Flu Emerging influenza is the global issue. The infection is a respiratory tract disease with additional atypical systemic presentation [1,2]. Due to the possible worldwide pandemic, the topic becomes hot issue at present. Emerging swine flu (H1N1) influenza has becomes the public health concern since its first appearance in 2009. This new emerging infection affects several countries around the world and it is still the present public health problem [1,2].
Mar 14, 2017. Review Article. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2017, 42 00077. Abstract. Swine flu is a highly contagious respiratory viral disease which is caused by influenza a virus. The disease can be found everywhere in the world especially in those peoples rearing pigs. The virus can circulate between human, avian, and. The disease is spread among pigs by direct and indirect contact, aerosols, and from pigs that are infected but do not have symptoms. In many parts of the world, pigs are vaccinated against swine flu. Most commonly, swine flu is of the H1N1 influenza subtype. However, swine flu viruses can sometimes come from other subtypes, such as H1N2, H3N1, and H3N2. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu that infected humans was of the H1N1 subtype. It is important to note that, although it developed in swine, the 2009 pandemic virus was not completely derived from swine. The virus contains a combination of flu genes from bird, swine, and human flu types. Less commonly, a person with swine flu may experience vomiting and diarrhea Symptoms can be managed with similar treatments to regular flu.
Review Article. Influenza as a disease of pigs was first recognized during the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918–1919. Veterinarian J. S. Koen was the first to describe the illness, observing frequent outbreaks of influenza in families followed immediately by illness in their swine herds, and vice versa 1. Influenza virus. What do we really know about the 2009 H1N1 swine flu vaccine? People with allergies to eggs, for example, can't take flu vaccines because eggs are involved in the manufacturing process. About one in three people get a sore arm from the shot, some with a little redness or even swelling. Surf the Internet or flip through TV stations and you'll encounter a multitude of myths and a whole lot of hype. Straightforward answers follow these questions: No vaccine is 100% safe for everyone. Some 10% to 15% of people feel tired or get a headache; some may even run a low fever. And vaccines can trigger rare but serious reactions, even among people with no apparent allergies or sensitivities. Approved vaccines -- including the 2009 H1N1 swine flu vaccine -- are calculated to be much, much less risky than the diseases they prevent. For example, out of every million people who get a flu shot, one or two will get a serious neurological reaction called Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). But flu itself causes serious problems, including GBS, in far more than two in a million cases. And since a large proportion of the population will get swine flu, the vaccine risk is far smaller than the disease risk. In clinical trials, 10,000 to 15,000 children and adults have received various manufacturers' brands of H1N1 swine flu vaccine.
The swine flu vaccine, public attitudes, and researcher interpretations a systematic review of qualitative research. Benedicte CarlsenEmail author and; Claire Glenton. BMC Health Services ResearchBMC series – open, inclusive and trusted20163. https//doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1466-7. © Carlsen and Glenton. Earlier forms of the H1N1 virus were found in pigs (swine). Over time, the virus changed (mutated) and infected humans. H1N1 is a new virus first detected in humans in 2009. The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine. You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from eating pork or any other food, drinking water, swimming in pools, or using hot tubs or saunas. Any flu virus can spread from person to person when: Updated by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.
H1N1 Swine flu Virus High Impact List of Articles PPts Journals 5261. The 2009 swine flu outbreak pandemic was due to infection with the H1N1 virus and was first observed in Mexico. Symptoms of swine flu in humans are similar to most. Review Article Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine, 2015 245. Both centres, at Brownsville and nearby Fort Brown, were today on lockdown as border officials scrambled to contain a potential outbreak, placing some 120 people who came in contact with the juveniles in isolation. It comes days after Texas officials renewed demands that the federal government take further steps to secure the border as waves of illegal immigrants are turning military bases into makeshift settlements. Worries: It comes days after Texas officials renewed demands that the federal government take further steps to secure the border as waves of illegal immigrants are turning military bases into makeshift settlements Too young for the journey: A young girl traveling with Central American migrants plays on the freight train they had been riding Friday, after it suffered a minor derailment in a remote wooded area outside Reforma de Pineda, Chiapas state, Mexico Those considered 'at risk' are pregnant women, people suffering chronic, long-term lung, heart, kidney or liver disease, people suffering conditions including cystic fibrosis and Parkinson's and diabetes. Both men’s remarks came as many border towns have seen an influx of people illegally crossing the U. – Mexico border only to end up in temporary prisons and makeshift settlements before they are processed and either deported or sent elsewhere. A significant number of these immigrants are now unaccompanied minors who end up in lockups like the widely-publicized one at a former bus station in Mc Allen, or are found dead in the desert – like a young girl was this week.
Swine Influenza A H1N1 infection in two children-Southern California, March–April 2009. MMWR. 2009;0–402. 9Carrat, F. Vergu, E. Ferguson, N. M. Lemaitre, M. Cauchemez, S. Leach, S. et al, Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza a review of volunteer challenge studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2008. During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009–2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We suggest instead that people’s questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public.
A REVIEW ARTICLE ON SWINE FLU. Megha Kadam. ABSTRACT. Swine flu refers to swine influenza or the viral infection caused by any of the several types of swine influenza virus. Only people who used to have direct contact with pigs were observed to get swine flu in the pastH1N1 is an Influenza A virus. Swine flu can. Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. The viruses pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. And "stomach flu" isn't really flu at all, but gastroenteritis. The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine.