Central serous chorioretinopathy CSCR is a major cause of vision threat among middle-aged male individuals. Multimodal imaging led to the description of a wide. Although not an SI unit, the millimeter of mercury is still routinely used in medicine, meteorology, aviation, and many other scientific fields. One millimeter of mercury is approximately 1 Torr, which is 1/760 of standard atmospheric pressure ( Mercury manometers were the first accurate pressure gauges; they are less used today due to mercury's toxicity, the mercury column's sensitivity to temperature and local gravity, and the greater convenience of other instrumentation. They displayed the pressure difference between two fluids as a vertical difference between the mercury levels in two connected reservoirs. An actual mercury column reading may be converted to more fundamental units of pressure by multiplying the difference in height between two mercury levels by the density of mercury and the local gravitational acceleration. Because the density of mercury depends on temperature and surface gravity, both of which vary with local conditions, specific standard values for these two parameters were adopted.
May 1, 1995. Abstract. The covarion hypothesis of molecular evolution states that the fixation of mutations may alter the probability that any given position will fix the next change. Tests of this hypothesis using the divergence of real sequences are compromised because models of rate variation among sites e.g. the. Objective It is well known that total cholesterol becomes less of a risk factor or not at all for all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality with increasing age, but as little is known as to whether low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), one component of total cholesterol, is associated with mortality in the elderly, we decided to investigate this issue. Setting, participants and outcome measures We sought Pub Med for cohort studies, where LDL-C had been investigated as a risk factor for all-cause and/or CV mortality in individuals ≥60 years from the general population. Results We identified 19 cohort studies including 30 cohorts with a total of 68 094 elderly people, where all-cause mortality was recorded in 28 cohorts and CV mortality in 9 cohorts. Inverse association between all-cause mortality and LDL-C was seen in 16 cohorts (in 14 with statistical significance) representing 92% of the number of participants, where this association was recorded. In two cohorts, CV mortality was highest in the lowest LDL-C quartile and with statistical significance; in seven cohorts, no association was found. Conclusions High LDL-C is inversely associated with mortality in most people over 60 years. This finding is inconsistent with the cholesterol hypothesis (ie, that cholesterol, particularly LDL-C, is inherently atherogenic). Since elderly people with high LDL-C live as long or longer than those with low LDL-C, our analysis provides reason to question the validity of the cholesterol hypothesis. Moreover, our study provides the rationale for a re-evaluation of guidelines recommending pharmacological reduction of LDL-C in the elderly as a component of cardiovascular disease prevention strategies.
A hypothesis plural hypotheses is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the. (1991) proposed that a pair of asthenospheric upwellings, paralleling and controlled by the temperature contrast across the North American continental margin were responsible for formation of the Bermuda and Labrador rises. (2000) present images from a seismic tomography model that are consistent with the down-welling limbs of the EDC instability associated with cratonic roots under Africa. These examples appeal to a small-scale instability driven by lateral variations in temperature near the top of the mantle ( (2000) as downwelling limbs under the Atlantic side of the African and South American cratons (Figure 1). The saturated blue region in the upper 100 km is 4% faster than PREM while the blue limbs, which extend to 500 km depth, are interpreted as the down-going limbs of the EDC instability. Because of ray focusing and dispersion, it may be easier to image the cold, fast, down-going limbs of the EDC flow than the warmer, upwelling part of the EDC flow that we expect to find beneath hotspots. A corollary of this is that seismic experiments testing the EDC flow hypothesis should have a distribution of stations covering not only the hotspot under investigation, but also the potential “edge”. EDC requires a stable, thick continental or cratonic root adjacent to a thinner (probably oceanic) plate. Figure 1: A vertical cross-section through the tomographic model S20RTS. Blue regions represent anomalies larger (faster) than PREM and red represent regions smaller (slower) than PREM. Because of our limited knowledge of the thermal, mechanical and chemical properties of the cratonic root, it is difficult to place a bound on the minimum thickness root necessary to generate an EDC instability. While not exhausting parameter space, our numerical experiments suggest that a 150 km thick craton/root is the minimum required.
Let us now turn to the company and what is now regarded as the proof of the MM dividend irrelevancy hypothesis. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. 1979, 1986 © Harper Collins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012 Cite This Source (hī-pŏth'ĭ-sĭs) Plural hypotheses (hī-pŏth'ĭ-sēz')A statement that explains or makes generalizations about a set of facts or principles, usually forming a basis for possible experiments to confirm its viability. Our Living Language : The words hypothesis, law, and theory refer to different kinds of statements, or sets of statements, that scientists make about natural phenomena. A hypothesis is a proposition that attempts to explain a set of facts in a unified way. It generally forms the basis of experiments designed to establish its plausibility. Simplicity, elegance, and consistency with previously established hypotheses or laws are also major factors in determining the acceptance of a hypothesis.
Atlantis Location Hypothesis. Piri Reis Map. There have been many locations proposed for the location of mythical Atlantis. Some are more or less serious attempts at. Modigliani and Miller approach to capital theory, devised in the 1950s advocates capital structure irrelevancy theory. This suggests that the valuation of a firm is irrelevant to the capital structure of a company. Whether a firm is highly leveraged or has lower debt component, it has no bearing on its market value. Rather, the market value of a firm is dependent on the operating profits of the company. The capital structure of a company is the way a company finances its assets. A company can finance its operations by either debt or equity or different combinations of these two sources. The capital structure of a company can have a majority of debt component or a majority of equity, only one of the 2 components or an equal mix of both debt and equity. Each approach has its own set of advantages and disadvantages.
Capital Structure MM - I - Duration. Modigliani & Miller Hypothesis Part 6 - Duration. Edupedia World 251 views. Despite recent advances in drug development, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable for the majority of patients due to relapse and disease progression. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis may provide an explanation for these clinical findings. It suggests that the long-term proliferative potential responsible for disease initiation, maintenance, and relapse is contained within specific subpopulations of biologically distinct tumor cells. Data in MM suggest that CSCs represent a rare cell population phenotypically resembling normal memory B cells. Compared to MM plasma cells, MM CSCs also appear to be relatively resistant to a wide variety of standard anti-cancer agents suggesting they may persist following treatment and mediate tumor re-growth and relapse. A unique property CSCs share with their normal counterparts is the potential for self-renewal that likely maintains the malignant clone over time. The development of therapeutic strategies targeting the signaling elements contributing to cancer cell self-renewal has been limited primarily because the cellular processes involved are poorly understood. However, it is common that the signaling pathway components regulating normal stem cell self-renewal are aberrantly activated in human cancers and may serve as potential therapeutic targets.
Hypothesis? Hypothesis is a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations. An efficient capital market is a market that reflects all available news and information. An efficient market is also quick to absorb new information and adjust stock prices relative to that information. This is known as an informationally efficient market. Generally, efficient markets are expected to reflect all available information. If that is not the case, investors with the information may benefit leading to abnormal returns.
Summary. One of the main goals of statistical hypothesis testing is to estimate the P value, which is the probability of obtaining the observed results, or something. This procedure starts with a statement regarding the population and information from the sample is used to decide whether or not there is enough evidence to conclude that this statement might be false. For the case of a single sample it needs to describe the population, introduce the characteristic under study, include a statistical measure of interest (e.g. the mean) and propose an assumed value for this measure. For instance, in a community study of systolic blood pressure an appropriate null hypothesis might be: In raising doubts about the null hypothesis, it would be unreasonable to demand a sample mean of exactly 120 mm Hg in order to conclude that a population mean of 120 mm Hg might be plausible. The issue is whether the difference between the sample and population means is sufficiently large to cast doubt on the null hypothesis. For example, a sample mean of 119 mm Hg might be compatible with the null hypothesis above whereas a sample mean of 105 mm Hg would raise considerable doubts. Once the null hypothesis has been formulated, the next step is to analyse the data from the sample and see how far the sample observations appear to depart from what might be expected should the null hypothesis be true. The assessment is carried out using what is known as a ‘test statistic’.
MM" is not only much shorter than the plausible alternative "Mi-Mo," but it also neatly handles the rather cumbersome switch to "Mo-Mi" required to reflect those occasions when Miller and Modigliani deviated from the standard alphabetic ordering. The MM Hypothesis can be summarized in two propositions. First, in an. Abstract We illustrate here the effects of the Modigliani-Miller theorems on capital structuring, emphasising especially on the relationship between equity and debt. This is carried out numerically via a simplified financial statement, which takes us through the methodology that leads to the ROE, WACC and firm’s value, all plotted against leverage. Introduction The Modigliani and Miller (M&M) theorems on capital structuring have, inarguably, laid down the foundations for modern corporate finance. There are several principles that underlie these theorems and two of these, which are most relevant to this paper, may, very simply, be reiterated as follows: 1. In the absence of taxes, there are no benefits, in terms of value creation, to increasing leverage. In the presence of taxes, such benefits, by way of interest tax shield, do accrue when leverage is introduced and/or increased.
Recently published. Perceptions of injury risk associated with booster seats and seatbelts the ejection stereotype hypothesis; Are humans a “clothed mass of. Acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter). adaptation: Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection. adaptive landscape: A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it. Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low. adaptive logic: A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations.
The middle molecule MM hypothesis states that molecules in the molecular weight range of 500 to 2000 daltons/molecule accumulate in uremia and are one cause of peripheral neuropathy. Evidence for and against this hypothesis is reviewed and evaluated. The course of events in the core of early hemodialysis patients. 50%, were imaged at baseline and following 12 months of randomized statin therapy (simvastatin 40mg or Vytorin (Ezetimibe 10mg/ simvastatin 40mg)). The effects of statins on these lesions were evaluated as changes in carotid outer wall area (OWA), lumen area (LA), vessel wall area (VWA), lipid area (Lp A) and lipid percentage (Lp%). The percentage of stenosis of each slice was determined in reference to a normal or near normal slice in the corresponding carotid artery. Mean resolution was 1x1x2mm.40% stenosis, there was no significant change in any of the parameters studied. There was also no statistically significant change in any of the parameters when all contiguous slices of all carotid plaques were analyzed in a 3D fashion.
MM Hypothesis – A Critique The assumptions of MM hypothesis are unrealistic and untenable in practice. Part III : How Living Organisms Breathe : Index How Plants Breathe Summary (useful for revision) Breathing in the Air : The Lungs Into the Thorax The Breathing System of Insects Animals which Breathe through their Skin Breathing Underwater Air-breathing aquatic animals Living without Oxygen Topic Chapters Index Primroses, Bristol, UK Wild Strawberries, Sheffield, UK Plants do breathe - they give out carbon dioxide and absorb oxygen from the air that surrounds them. Plants, however, do not have lungs or a blood stream, so we cannot say that they breathe in the same way as animals. In order to study respiration in green plants we must block out the light, because although green plants respire all the time they only photosynthesize in the light. We also have to be careful when studying green plants because in the light the green parts of these plants carry out photosynthesis as well as respiration. All parts of the plant respire, the leaves, the stem, the roots and even the flowers. The parts above the soil get their oxygen directly from the air through pores. The pores in the leaves are called stomata (singular: stoma). The pores in the branches of trees are called lenticels. A small part of the underside of the leaf has been magnified to show the stomata. The roots of a plant also need oxygen which they obtain from the air spaces in the soil.
Artificial prey were 54 mm wide by 28 mm high triangular targets, made from waterproof paper HP LaserJet Tough Paper; Palo Alto, CA, USA, printed with specific patterns on a Hewlett Packard LaserJet 2605dn colour printer at 300 dpi. Prey were made from samples of digital photos uncompressed TIFF files of ash tree. Group Theory • Fields and Galois Theory • Algebraic Geometry • Algebraic Number Theory • Modular Functions and Modular Forms • Elliptic Curves • Abelian Varieties • Lectures on Etale Cohomology • Class Field Theory • Algebraic Groups, Lie Groups, and their Arithmetic Subgroups • Complex Multiplication I had been to school most all the time ... Near the end of the lecture, the speaker said that he would conclude the proof with some hand-waving. He turned to me and said: "Now I understand why Indian Gods have so many hands; they want to give proofs in n-dimensions." Narasimhan (NAMS 2010, Sept, p.955). and could say the multiplication table up to six times seven is thirty-five, and I don't reckon I could ever get any further than that if I was to live forever. A mathematician is so rare an animal that he deserves to be preserved, be it only on the score of curiosity. Simone Weil (as quoted on p.396 of the Pétrement biography). Certainly the best times were when I was alone with mathematics, free of ambition and pretense, and indifferent to the world. Mathematical laws may be discovered by man, but they are not created by man, nor even by God. Langlands, in Mathematicians: An Outer View of the Inner World, p142. That two plus two equals four is not a decree of God that He is free to change into two plus two equals three, or five. Early on I noticed that mathematicians live in a world inaccessible to common mortals ... Do not work within two hours of a substantial meal; blood cannot be in two places at once. Mathematics has been for me, not only a profession, but also my preferred hobby. Again and again I have been guided by a sense of the architecture of this edifice, to which we continue to add new wings and new floors while renovating the parts already constructed, into feeling that certain problems had priority as opening new perspectives or establishing a new foundation for future constructions.